ProjectВ 17: В SoapsВ andВ DetergentsВ

StephanieВ FutrellВ

KelseyВ DuncanВ

TomВ BunchВ

AntwyoneВ ClayborneВ

ChemistryВ 1020В Laboratory, В SectionВ 007В В

Teacher: В FanВ YangВ

SeptemberВ 23, В 2014В

OurВ signaturesВ indicateВ thatВ thisВ documentВ representsВ ourВ ownВ work. В ExcludingВ sharedВ data, В theВ information, В thoughtsВ andВ ideasВ areВ myВ own, В exceptВ asВ indicatedВ inВ theВ references. В В

GoalsВ

ThereВ wasВ anotherВ oilВ spillВ thatВ coveredВ localВ birdsВ inВ oil. В TheВ environmentalВ groupВ steppedВ inВ toВ helpВ makeВ theirВ ownВ soap. В However, В they, В doВ notВ wantВ toВ useВ animalВ fat. В TheВ goalВ ofВ thisВ laboratoryВ projectВ wasВ toВ testВ whichВ ingredientВ (fat/oil)В makesВ forВ theВ bestВ soapВ usingВ theВ propertiesВ ofВ fats/oils. В AnotherВ goalВ wasВ toВ testВ theВ soap, В detergents, В andВ theirВ wasteВ waterВ toВ decideВ whichВ isВ theВ mostВ effectiveВ andВ environmentallyВ friendly. В TheВ groupВ wasВ alsoВ toВ determineВ whatВ wasВ causingВ theВ scumВ afterВ washingВ andВ figureВ outВ aВ solutionВ toВ stopВ it. В В В

ExperimentalВ DesignВ В

ToВ achieveВ theВ aboveВ goals, В fourВ differentВ typesВ ofВ soapsВ andВ twoВ detergentsВ wereВ madeВ withВ certainВ ingredientsВ andВ theВ desirableВ propertiesВ wereВ takenВ intoВ account. В TheВ wasteВ waterВ ofВ eachВ soapВ andВ detergentВ wasВ titratedВ toВ determineВ howВ theВ wasteВ waterВ wouldВ affectВ theВ environment. В ToВ makeВ fourВ differentВ typesВ ofВ soap, В weВ usedВ twoВ oils, В vegetableВ oilВ andВ oliveВ oil, В andВ twoВ fats, В shorteningВ andВ lard. В 10В mLВ ofВ theВ oilsВ andВ 10gВ ofВ theВ fatВ wereВ obtainedВ inВ aВ 250В­mLВ beaker. В 15В mLВ ofВ 6В MВ sodiumВ hydroxideВ andВ aboutВ 1В mLВ ofВ glycerolВ wereВ addedВ toВ eachВ ingredientВ dropВ byВ dropВ thenВ mixedВ thoroughlyВ withВ aВ glassВ rod. В TheВ solutionВ wasВ thenВ heatedВ withВ aВ heatingВ plateВ toВ boilingВ untilВ itВ becameВ pasty. В AfterВ theВ pasteВ cooled, В 50В mLВ ofВ saturatedВ sodiumВ chlorideВ solutionВ andВ iceВ wasВ mixedВ intoВ theВ remedy. В TheВ soapВ wasВ thenВ filteredВ usingВ suctionВ filtrationВ andВ washedВ withВ twoВ 5В­mLВ portionsВ ofВ coldВ water. В EachВ filtrateВ wasВ savedВ separately. В TwoВ methodsВ wereВ usedВ forВ makingВ detergents. В TheВ firstВ methodВ requiredВ 4В mLВ ofВ laurylВ alcoholВ toВ beВ placedВ inВ aВ 250В­mLВ beaker. В WhileВ stirring, В 2В mLВ ofВ concentratedВ sulfuricВ acidВ wasВ addedВ toВ theВ beaker. В WhileВ toВ mixtureВ satВ forВ 10В minutesВ anotherВ 250В­mLВ beakerВ wasВ filledВ withВ ice, В 10gВ ofВ sodiumВ chloride, В andВ waterВ untilВ theВ totalВ volumeВ wasВ 75В mL. В Then, В inВ aВ 50В­mLВ beaker, В 5В mLВ ofВ 6В MВ sodiumВ hydroxideВ andВ 10В mLВ ofВ waterВ wereВ mixed. В FourВ toВ fiveВ dropsВ ofВ phenolphthaleinВ toВ theВ sodiumВ hydroxideВ solution. В AfterВ theВ 10В minutes, В theВ sodiumВ hydroxideВ solutionВ wasВ addedВ toВ theВ sulfuricВ acidВ­laurylВ alcoholВ mixtureВ untilВ theВ pinkВ colorВ producedВ byВ theВ phenolphthaleinВ faded. В TheВ solutionВ wasВ pouredВ intoВ theВ saltВ­iceВ­waterВ bathВ andВ stirredВ untilВ theВ clumpsВ wereВ brokenВ up. В TheВ secondВ detergentВ wasВ madeВ accordingВ

toВ methodВ II. В 5В mLВ ofВ laurylВ alcoholВ wasВ carefullyВ addedВ toВ 5В mLВ ofВ concentratedВ sulfuricВ acid. В InВ anotherВ beaker, В 3В dropsВ ofВ phenolphthaleinВ wasВ addedВ toВ 10В mLВ ofВ 6В MВ NaOH. В Then, В theВ acidicВ solutionВ ofВ laurylВ alcoholВ wasВ addedВ toВ theВ NaOHВ solutionВ withВ constantВ stirringВ untilВ theВ pinkВ colorВ faded. В BothВ detergentsВ wereВ filteredВ usingВ vacuumВ filtrationВ andВ savedВ forВ theВ followingВ weeksВ tests. В В В

TheВ followingВ week, В solubility, В cleaning, В andВ latheringВ testsВ wereВ performedВ toВ determineВ whichВ soapВ andВ detergentВ cleanedВ theВ best. В TheВ wastewaterВ wasВ alsoВ analyzedВ fromВ theВ processesВ ofВ makingВ theВ soapsВ andВ detergents. В InВ addition, В theВ contaminantsВ andВ theВ environmentalВ impactВ ofВ theВ wastewatersВ wereВ identified. В AfterВ theseВ testsВ wereВ conducted, В theВ groupВ hadВ toВ decideВ whichВ soapВ orВ detergentВ wouldВ beВ bestВ forВ theВ environmentalВ groupВ toВ use. В ToВ testВ theВ solubilityВ ofВ eachВ soapВ andВ detergent, В peaВ­sizedВ clumpsВ ofВ eachВ wereВ addedВ toВ 5mLВ ofВ water, В acetone, В andВ ethylВ acetate. В ToВ testВ theВ cleaningВ abilitiesВ ofВ eachВ soapВ andВ detergent, В aВ wetВ paperВ towelВ wasВ usedВ withВ samplesВ ofВ eachВ soapВ andВ detergentВ toВ cleanВ aВ dirtyВ spotВ onВ...

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